Design Revolution: New Grantees
India
Health/Medical
Stanford-India Biodesign Phase II
Stanford University
biodesign
In 2007, Stanford University began a multi-year partnership with the Government of India to establish the Stanford-India Biodesign (SIB) program, the goal of which was to promote medical technology innovation in India. Phase I of SIB was a five-year pilot with the aim of developing one center (in New Delhi) as a prototype SIB center. The center has been internationally recognized for its approach to training innovators in the process of creating novel medical technologies for the poor, with three novel medical devices developed and one new company formed.

The Government of India is now enthusiastic to commence Phase II, in which additional SIB centers will be developed. This grant will support the launch of Phase II, which includes continuing to enable Stanford medical, engineering and business students to pursue clinical immersion within India, creating the India Biodesign Sourcebook as an open source resource for medical technology innovators, and advising in the creation of new India Biodesign centers within India.
Paul Yock
Paul Yock
Martha Meier Weiland Professor of Medicine & Director, Biodesign
School of Medicine and Bioengineering, Stanford University
Christine Kurihara
Christine Kurihara
Associate Director
Stanford India Biodesign, Stanford University
India
Health/Medical
Low-cost Prosthetic Solutions for Above-the-elbow Amputees Living in Poverty
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
prosthetic
While approximately 80% of the world's amputees live in developing nations, only 2% of the people in that segment have access to appropriate prosthetic care and rehabilitation. There are two primary reasons for this: the custom-fit sockets typically provided to amputees are very expensive, costing about $5,000, and they aren't geared toward the agricultural- and labor-oriented contexts of the developing world. Additionally, due to the fact that 90% of the world's amputees are missing a lower extremity instead of an upper extremity, the majority of prosthetics research has been applied to leg development and not toward arms, thus leaving a gap in upper-extremity devices.

This grant will involve three entities in producing an inexpensive prosthetic arm for above-the-elbow amputees in India. The three entities are: 1) a year-long, interdisciplinary, project-based course at UIUC, including international immersion with a team devoted to this topic; 2) Illini Prosthetic Technologies (IPT), a non-profit organization founded by University of Illinois engineering students; and 3) Marketplace Literacy Communities, a non-profit organization in South India.

IPT has been working for over three years to develop an affordable and appropriate below-the-elbow prosthetic arm for amputees in Guatemala. This new device will build on the technology, called OpenSocket, and take IPT in a new direction by exploring above-the-elbow prosthetic arms in a new geographical setting.
Madhubalan Viswanathan
Madhubalan Viswanathan
Professor
College of Business, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Eshan Nourselehi
Eshan Nourselehi
Vice President & Creative Director, IPT
Industrial Design Masters Student, University of Illinois
Thomas Frankie
Thomas Frankie
Grant Writer, IPT
Civil Engineering Graduate Student, University
of Illinois
India
Health/Medical
Designing and Constructing a Low-cost Incubator/Warmer/Cooler/Transporter for Neonates
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
incubator
Infant mortality in poor areas of the world remains high, with premature birth and asphyxia two of the leading causes. The well-regulated thermal environment provided by an incubator in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit can be crucial for a newborn's survival, but social, cultural and economic pressures often result in mothers of premature infants in developing countries being forced to leave hospitals as soon as possible in order to resume their traditional family duties.

This team plans to circumvent the problem by providing a low-cost home incubator kit for in-home care of high-risk infants, greatly impacting survival and eventually starting to push infant mortality rates down. The team's device is a combination transporter (for the move between hospital and home), cooler, heater and incubator. It consists of a heat pipe-coupled evaporative cooler (water-filled clay pot) connected to a pod-like bubble for housing the infant. The heat pipes will allow both heating and cooling. A digital temperature readout is on the front, and a battery and solar panel are provided for off-grid functionality.

The team is partnered with General Electric's Maternal Infant Care division and a charitable hospital in Southern India. Their one-year goal is to design and test the device; once tested, GE will take over marketing and manufacturing.
Govind Rao
Govind Rao
Professor & Director
Center for Advanced Sensor Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Dagmawi Tilahun
Dagmawi Tilahun
Undergraduate Student
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Zambia-Kenya-Mozambique
Health/Medical
Scaling Medical Devices in African Markets
Stanford University
scaling
This grant supports the launch of Brilliance, a low-cost phototherapy device for newborns with jaundice, in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-disciplinary team of Stanford and Northwestern students and faculty will collaborate with the non-profit D-Rev to research the medical device markets in East and Southern Africa, seeking to understand medical device distribution channels, sales, marketing, and maintenance for Brilliance and other medical devices.

Specifically, the team will research medical device markets in Zambia, Kenya, and Mozambique, with the end goal of pilot launching Brilliance in one region. The team will also broadly disseminate its research, experiences, and lessons learned to support other medical social enterprises in Africa.
Bernard Roth
Bernard Roth
Rodney H. Adams Professor of Engineering, Academic Director
Hasso Plattner Institute of Design, Stanford University
Krista Donaldson
Krista Donaldson
CEO
D-Rev: Design Revolution
Nicaragua
Water/Sanitation
The RAAS Waste and Recycling Program
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
raas
Nicaragua is the second poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere. Located on the Atlantic Coast of the country, the Southern Autonomous Region (RAAS) of Nicaragua is plagued with the most severe poverty in the country and has very little infrastructure, including systems for the removal and treatment of solid waste. Garbage is commonly dumped in informal dumpsites, creeks, and rivers, or burned in yards behind homes, producing greenhouse gases and emitting environmental toxins that are a threat to public health. Previous attempts to initiate recycling programs in this region have been hampered by the high cost of transporting trash from remote RAAS municipalities to recycling brokers in Managua, located on the other side of the country.

This team is partnering with wastepickers, scrap metal collectors, and a local composting cooperative to develop economically feasible waste sector enterprises that simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas emissions and create income for some of the region's most marginalized families. The team has a two-phased, three-year plan. Phase I focuses on the largest town in the region, Bluefield, where the team will work with locals to plan a recycling route and build a recycling enterprise, a composting cooperative, and a small scale biodigester that uses organic waste to create biogas. Phase II extends the project to two other towns in the region, El Rama and the Corn Islands.
Amy Smith
Amy Smith
Senior Lecturer
D-Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Elizabeth McDonald
Elizabeth McDonald
Community Innovators Lab, DUSP, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Angela Hojnacki
Angela Hojnacki
Undergraduate Student
Mechanical Engineering and Irban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute
of Technology
Southeast-Asia
Water/Sanitation
Transforming Arsenic Crisis into a Technology-based Economic Enterprise in South Asia
Lehigh University
arsenic
Over 200 million people in South and Southeast Asia are routinely exposed to arsenic poisoning by drinking naturally contaminated groundwater. For over ten years, Lehigh University has led an international team in developing, installing and monitoring hundreds of community-based arsenic removal systems in several Southeast Asian countries. Participating families pay a fee for arsenic-safe water, obtained by using a polymer-based arsenic-selective adsorbent currently manufactured in the US. But high cost, import duties and uncertainty in shipping due to bureaucratic formalities have surfaced as primary obstacles for further growth of the enterprise.

This team has developed an equally efficient, reusable, arsenic-selective adsorbent that will cost fifty percent less than the current product and will be able to be made in India as opposed to the US. An Indian company, Enhanced Water and Air Pollution Prevention Ltd., has agreed to invest in large-scale synthesis of the material with the goal of providing safe drinking water to high-rise buildings in semi-urban areas, a growing market in the developing world. The idea is that increased revenue from this new potential market will reduce the risk of serving more resource-poor people.

This grant will support the streamlining and scaling up of the synthesis process for the new material, and in obtaining the necessary certifications for entry into the marketplace.
Prakhar Prakash
Prakhar Prakash
Lead Research Engineer
Chevron Corporation
Mike German
Mike German
Student
Lehigh University
Thailand-Indonesia
Materials
Interlocking Compressed Earth Block Buildings: Low-cost Earthquake Resistant Construction Using Indigenous Materials
California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
earthblock
The need for low cost housing in Southeast Asia is compelling for two reasons: the region's seismic activity and its large, dense populations of low-income purchasers. In order to meet the need for earthquake resistant, inexpensive housing, this team is partnering with a Thai NGO to promote interlocking compressed earth block (ICEB) construction in the area. ICEBs are made by compressing soil with the right combination of fines (silt and clay) and sand with a small amount of water and cement so that they are stable enough to be handled right after pressing and do not erode when they come into contact with water. ICEBs are environmentally friendly and can be made locally by lower-skilled laborers with minimal training.

Specifically, with NCIIA support the Cal Poly team will develop manuals for ICEB construction and travel to Thailand and Indonesia to perform site visits and to build a prototype ICEB structure. The team's partner NGO, which has a business model that combines a revolving fund with income from training courses and sales of equipment, will continue development from there.
Daniel Jansen
Daniel Jansen
Associate Professor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Peter Laursen
Peter Laursen
Assistant Professor
Department of Architectural Engineering, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Cameroon
Agriculture
JolaVenture
Northeastern University
jola
Food waste and spoilage is a problem in developing countries, which often lack the infrastructure to preserve food: the State of the World 2011 report stated that more than 40% of food losses occur at post-harvest and processing levels. As an example, 70% of Cameroon's inhabitants are farmers, but the region lacks basic food preservation and processing infrastructure, so farmers either sell food once a week at the local marketplace or rely on foreign distributors. In either case, they end up purchasing products like canned tomatoes, bottled spices, chocolate, and coffee at exorbitant prices.

JolaVenture is developing the Solar Food Dryer (SFD) as an effective, low-cost solution to food spoilage in developing nations. Using solar energy to dehydrate fruits, vegetables, carbohydrates and meats, the SFD extends the shelf lives of perishable food items, giving users a simple and cost-effective means of food preservation.

The team's goal is to create SFD packaging and distribution centers where produce would be bought, dried, packaged and sold to local markets.
William Tita
William Tita
Lecturer, Entrepreneurship and Innovation
College of Business Administration, Northeastern University
Michael Cantalino
Michael Cantalino
Student
Northeastern University
Kenya
Agriculture
Promoting Entrepreneurial Development and Sustainable Agribusinesses in Rural Western Kenya
University of Hartford
agribiz
In Kenya, maize crops, the main food staple, are failing due to disease, climate change and droughts. Amaranth, a drought- and disease-resistant grain with high nutrient and immunity properties, was introduced to Kenya in 2005 and has shown higher marginal returns compared to other commodities, including maize.

This initiative builds on a partnership between US universities and Kenyan institutions to develop market-driven, affordable technology innovations that take advantage of amaranth grain as a cash crop in Western Kenya. The team has already performed fieldwork there, working with farming cooperatives to produce and market amaranth. With this grant, the team will work with farming groups to increase the quantity and quality of the grain, develop the infrastructure and local capacity for large-scale manufacturing of a mechanical seed planter and human-powered thresher, and implement a business strategy with farming cooperatives.
David Pines
David Pines
Assistant Professor and Chair
College of Civil, Environmental, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Hartford
Marcia Hughes
Marcia Hughes
Assistant Director
Center for Social Research, University of Hartford
Kenya-Tanzania
Agriculture
Affordable Greenhouses: Means for Improved Livelihoods and Food Security
Pennsylvania State University
greenhouse
Food security issues are escalating in East Africa, where over 60% of the population is malnourished. There is broad agreement on the need to help small-scale farmers boost their agricultural productivity, reduce spoilage and provide market linkages. Greenhouses can help farmers increase yields, but the greenhouses currently sold in East Africa, designed for large commercial farms, are too expensive for small-scale farmers and generally do not meet their needs.

Over the last three years, this team has collaborated with Kenyan and Tanzanian entities to design, prototype, and field-test affordable greenhouses designed for small farmers. The greenhouses cost about $250 and can be assembled by two people in two days.

With this grant, the team will refine the product and disseminate it through a network of distributed micro-enterprises.
Khanjan Mehta
Khanjan Mehta
Director, Humanitarian Engineering and Social Entrepreneurship (HESE) Program; Instructor, Engineering Design
The Pennsylvania State University
Min Pack
Min Pack
Undergraduate Student
Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University
Shruthi Baskaran
Shruthi Baskaran
Undergraduate Student, Schreyer Honoros Scholar
Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University
Ethiopia
Agriculture
Injerama: Social Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Development in Ethiopia
Pennsylvania State University
injerama
Injera is a spongy sourdough flatbread made from the Ethiopian grain t'ef. It is a staple of Ethiopian meals, but is usually cooked over an open fire, resulting in severe deforestation and poor respiratory health.

This project addresses environmental sustainability and the health of women and children by eliminating the need to use wood for fuel to cook injera. Instead, it will be mass-manufactured in a centralized food processing facility in Addis Ababa using not only t'ef but lower cost grains like sorghum, millet and buckwheat. Mixed grain formulations will reduce the cost of injera while improving nutritional quality.

The team is partnered with the African Climate Exchange and the Organization for Rehabilitation and Development in Amhara.
Gregory Ziegler
Gregory Ziegler
Professor
Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University
Sisay Shimelis
Sisay Shimelis
President
PTE International